Obesity is frequently showing its link with the metabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease. Heart disease is directly related to obesity through ventricular enlargement, atrial enlargement, and atherosclerosis. And obesity also leads to an increase in other diseases also like increase in sleep apnea (sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts), dyslipidemia (abnormal elevated cholesterol or fats), type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and metabolic syndrome. Persons who have high childhood body mass index (BMI) to normal in adulthood also have a similar risk of dyslipidemia and hypertension compared with those who were never overweight.

1. Genetic factors for obesity.

The most common connected gene is MC4R encodes for the melanocortin 4 receptor. Changes in MC4R diminish its function in a small population of obese people in various groups. Affected children feel extremely hungry and by overeating they became obese. Many obesities seem to be multifactorial, which occur due to many complex gene interactions, and also environmental factors affect obesity. This gene produces proteins such as leptin, insulin, and ghrelin (hunger hormone) brain coordinates and the final result is more food intake and reduces energy usage which gives the obese body.

2. Sick fat and metabolic disease.

Adiposopathy (sick fat) is a pathogenic enlargement of adipose cells and adipose tissue, leading to metabolic disease and increase risk for cardiovascular disease. Adiposopathy increases in visceral, pericardial (covering around the heart), and other organs. Pathophysiological sick fat occurs because of cell organelle dysfunction and results in increased circulating free fatty acids. In this person generally suffer from high blood glucose, insulin resistance, hypertension and atherosclerosis

3. Inflammation in Cardiovascular disease.

Chronic systemic inflammation along with the accumulation of epicardial (covering of the heart) adipose tissue, has been observed in people with obesity. Inflammation occurs due to the accumulation of fatty acid promotion in arties and lipoproteins in circulation become trapped in sub-enothelium and generate an inflammation reaction and ultimately lead to plaque i.e. Artheroma which is an abnormal accumulation of material in the inner layer of the wall of an artery leads to blockage in the arteries. Systemic inflammation promotes the expression of a proinflammatory phenotype in epicardial fat, particularly the adipose tissue surrounds the coronary arteries. Hormone adiponectin, which reduces inflammation and fibrosis in coronary arteries and myocardial.

FIG: INFLAMMATION OF EPICRDIAL ADIPOSE TISSUE AND LEADS TO AFFECT DIFFERENT FACTORS
FIG: INFLAMMATION OF EPICRDIAL ADIPOSE TISSUE AND LEADS TO AFFECT DIFFERENT FACTORS  

4. Heart failure with Diastolic Heart failure

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) occur when left ventricle is not able to fill properly with blood during filling phase, and the amount of blood pumped out to the body is less than normal.  A normal ejection amount is about 55% i.e. 55 percent of the total blood in the left ventricle is pumped out with each heartbeat. It generally occurs because the ventricles became stiff and cannot relax and in HFpEF the ejection fraction became 40 to 49% and overtime this increased filling causes blood to build up inside the left atrium and eventually into the lungs, which leads to fluid congestion and the symptoms of heart failure.

5. High blood pressure and heart attack due to obesity

Excess body weight is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and it is well known that obesity is associated with activation of both sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system contributing to the appearance of hypertension, moreover coronary arteries (arteries of the heart) became narrow because the buildup of fat, cholesterol and other substance that together called plaque the flow of blood through the heart muscle is interrupted starving the muscle of oxygen and nutrients. The damage or death of part of the heart muscle that occurs as a result of a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

CONCLUSION:

Nearly 39% of adults suffering from obesity and being obese can lead to type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and atherosclerosis which can lead to stroke. There are genetic factors which also lead to obesity, but the environmental factors such as regular exercise or other physical activities can make you active and decrease the others factors that occur due to obesity. Shortness of breath, nausea or light-headedness and pain in chest can be the warning signs of heart attack, so if you do exercise and maintain a balance diet then the plaque in the arteries and hormones, which leads to sick fat, cholesterol, hypertension can be controlled and you live a healthy life

REFERENCE:

  1. https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2018/07/06/12/42/cover-story-obesity-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk
  2. https://www.pennmedicine.org/updates/blogs/metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-blog/2019/march/obesity-and-heart-disease
  3. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/health-threats-from-high-blood-pressure/how-high-blood-pressure-can-lead-to-a-heart-attack
  4. https://www.medicinenet.com/healthy_living/article.htm
  5. https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/resources/diseases/obesity/obesedit.htm#:~:text=Rarely%2C%20obesity%20occurs%20in%20families,people%20in%20various%20ethnic%20groups.
  6. https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/tx4091abc

This Post Has One Comment

  1. Lys Marie

    Amazing post!! I never heard about the term Adiposopathy before. One of the things that I like here is the opportunity to always learn something new! Thanks for sharing!!

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